SSH Audit

SSH Audit #

The instructions at the top of the page are for a clean 7.5 installation. This additional step is required for older versions and upgraded installations.

Installing ssh-audit #

Install the ssh-audit package.

doas pkg_add ssh-audit

Then run the program.

ssh-audit localhost

The output of the ssh-audit command for a default installation of amd64 OpenBSD 7.5 will look like the following (emphasis added).


# general
(gen) banner: SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_9.7
(gen) software: OpenSSH 9.7
(gen) compatibility: OpenSSH 8.5+, Dropbear SSH 2018.76+
(gen) compression: enabled (zlib@openssh.com)

# key exchange algorithms
(kex) sntrup761x25519-sha512@openssh.com    -- [info] available since OpenSSH 8.5
(kex) curve25519-sha256                     -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.4, Dropbear SSH 2018.76
                                            `- [info] default key exchange since OpenSSH 6.4
(kex) curve25519-sha256@libssh.org          -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.4, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
                                            `- [info] default key exchange since OpenSSH 6.4
(kex) ecdh-sha2-nistp256                    -- [fail] using elliptic curves that are suspected as being backdoored by the U.S. National Security Agency
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.7, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
(kex) ecdh-sha2-nistp384                    -- [fail] using elliptic curves that are suspected as being backdoored by the U.S. National Security Agency
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.7, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
(kex) ecdh-sha2-nistp521                    -- [fail] using elliptic curves that are suspected as being backdoored by the U.S. National Security Agency
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.7, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
(kex) diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256 (3072-bit) -- [info] available since OpenSSH 4.4
                                                      `- [info] OpenSSH's GEX fallback mechanism was triggered during testing. Very old SSH clients will still be able to create connections using a 2048-bit modulus, though modern clients will use 3072. This can only be disabled by recompiling the code (see https://github.com/openssh/openssh-portable/blob/V_9_4/dh.c#L477).
(kex) diffie-hellman-group16-sha512         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.3, Dropbear SSH 2016.73
(kex) diffie-hellman-group18-sha512         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.3
(kex) diffie-hellman-group14-sha256         -- [warn] 2048-bit modulus only provides 112-bits of symmetric strength
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.3, Dropbear SSH 2016.73
(kex) ext-info-s                            -- [info] pseudo-algorithm that denotes the peer supports RFC8308 extensions
(kex) kex-strict-s-v00@openssh.com          -- [info] pseudo-algorithm that denotes the peer supports a stricter key exchange method as a counter-measure to the Terrapin attack (CVE-2023-48795)

# host-key algorithms
(key) rsa-sha2-512 (3072-bit)               -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.2
(key) rsa-sha2-256 (3072-bit)               -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.2
(key) ecdsa-sha2-nistp256                   -- [fail] using elliptic curves that are suspected as being backdoored by the U.S. National Security Agency
                                            `- [warn] using weak random number generator could reveal the key
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.7, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
(key) ssh-ed25519                           -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.5

# encryption algorithms (ciphers)
(enc) chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.5
                                            `- [info] default cipher since OpenSSH 6.9
(enc) aes128-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7, Dropbear SSH 0.52
(enc) aes192-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7
(enc) aes256-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7, Dropbear SSH 0.52
(enc) aes128-gcm@openssh.com                -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(enc) aes256-gcm@openssh.com                -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2

# message authentication code algorithms
(mac) umac-64-etm@openssh.com               -- [warn] using small 64-bit tag size
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) umac-128-etm@openssh.com              -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com             -- [fail] using broken SHA-1 hash algorithm
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) umac-64@openssh.com                   -- [warn] using encrypt-and-MAC mode
                                            `- [warn] using small 64-bit tag size
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 4.7
(mac) umac-128@openssh.com                  -- [warn] using encrypt-and-MAC mode
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha2-256                         -- [warn] using encrypt-and-MAC mode
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.9, Dropbear SSH 2013.56
(mac) hmac-sha2-512                         -- [warn] using encrypt-and-MAC mode
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 5.9, Dropbear SSH 2013.56
(mac) hmac-sha1                             -- [fail] using broken SHA-1 hash algorithm
                                            `- [warn] using encrypt-and-MAC mode
                                            `- [info] available since OpenSSH 2.1.0, Dropbear SSH 0.28

# fingerprints
(fin) ssh-ed25519: SHA256:Nj+oAvSGKSgBI/39hNw3iA0DqAmQCvEQPV2jAFGU8UM
(fin) ssh-rsa: SHA256:J7frkgtRbu3CkvdmBcTGKEy3Ierxi16jZKUiDD9wrUk

# algorithm recommendations (for OpenSSH 9.7)
(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp256                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp384                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp521                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -ecdsa-sha2-nistp256                  -- key algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha1                            -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com            -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -diffie-hellman-group14-sha256        -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha2-256                        -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha2-512                        -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-128@openssh.com                 -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-64-etm@openssh.com              -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-64@openssh.com                  -- mac algorithm to remove

# additional info
(nfo) For hardening guides on common OSes, please see: https://www.ssh-audit.com/hardening_guides.html
(nfo) Be aware that, while this target properly supports the strict key exchange method (via the kex-strict-?-v00@openssh.com marker) needed to protect against the Terrapin vulnerability (CVE-2023-48795), all peers must also support this feature as well, otherwise the vulnerability will still be present.  The following algorithms would allow an unpatched peer to create vulnerable SSH channels with this target: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com.  If any CBC ciphers are in this list, you may remove them while leaving the *-etm@openssh.com MACs in place; these MACs are fine while paired with non-CBC cipher types.

Fixing the issues #

The output shows that there are issues with the Key EXchange (kex), Message Authentication Code (MAC), and host-key (key) algorithms.

The following kex should be removed.

(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp256                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp384                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -ecdh-sha2-nistp521                   -- kex algorithm to remove
(rec) -diffie-hellman-group14-sha256        -- kex algorithm to remove

And the following MACs should be removed.

(rec) -hmac-sha1                            -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com            -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha2-256                        -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -hmac-sha2-512                        -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-128@openssh.com                 -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-64-etm@openssh.com              -- mac algorithm to remove
(rec) -umac-64@openssh.com                  -- mac algorithm to remove

And the following key should be removed.

(rec) -ecdsa-sha2-nistp256                  -- key algorithm to remove

Instead of removing the unwanted algorithms, the following 3 commands add only those algorithms that are wanted to the sshd config.

KEX #

doas sh -c 'echo -e "\n# Restrict key exchange\nKexAlgorithms curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,sntrup761x25519-sha512@openssh.com\n" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config'

MACs #

doas sh -c 'echo -e "# Restrict MACS\nMACs umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com\n" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config'

Host Key #

doas sh -c 'echo -e "# Restrict Host-keys\nHostKeyAlgorithms rsa-sha2-256,rsa-sha2-512,ssh-ed25519" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config'

Verify the config #

Use the -t option to verify the sshd config. There should be no messages.

doas sshd -t

Restart sshd

doas rcctl restart sshd

Verify with ssh-audit #

ssh-audit localhost


# general
(gen) banner: SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_9.7
(gen) software: OpenSSH 9.7
(gen) compatibility: OpenSSH 8.5+, Dropbear SSH 2018.76+
(gen) compression: enabled (zlib@openssh.com)

# key exchange algorithms
(kex) curve25519-sha256                     -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.4, Dropbear SSH 2018.76
                                            `- [info] default key exchange since OpenSSH 6.4
(kex) curve25519-sha256@libssh.org          -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.4, Dropbear SSH 2013.62
                                            `- [info] default key exchange since OpenSSH 6.4
(kex) diffie-hellman-group16-sha512         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.3, Dropbear SSH 2016.73
(kex) diffie-hellman-group18-sha512         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.3
(kex) diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256 (3072-bit) -- [info] available since OpenSSH 4.4
                                                      `- [info] OpenSSH's GEX fallback mechanism was triggered during testing. Very old SSH clients will still be able to create connections using a 2048-bit modulus, though modern clients will use 3072. This can only be disabled by recompiling the code (see https://github.com/openssh/openssh-portable/blob/V_9_4/dh.c#L477).
(kex) sntrup761x25519-sha512@openssh.com    -- [info] available since OpenSSH 8.5
(kex) ext-info-s                            -- [info] pseudo-algorithm that denotes the peer supports RFC8308 extensions
(kex) kex-strict-s-v00@openssh.com          -- [info] pseudo-algorithm that denotes the peer supports a stricter key exchange method as a counter-measure to the Terrapin attack (CVE-2023-48795)

# host-key algorithms
(key) rsa-sha2-512 (3072-bit)               -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.2
(key) rsa-sha2-256 (3072-bit)               -- [info] available since OpenSSH 7.2
(key) ssh-ed25519                           -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.5

# encryption algorithms (ciphers)
(enc) chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.5
                                            `- [info] default cipher since OpenSSH 6.9
(enc) aes128-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7, Dropbear SSH 0.52
(enc) aes192-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7
(enc) aes256-ctr                            -- [info] available since OpenSSH 3.7, Dropbear SSH 0.52
(enc) aes128-gcm@openssh.com                -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(enc) aes256-gcm@openssh.com                -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2

# message authentication code algorithms
(mac) umac-128-etm@openssh.com              -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2
(mac) hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com         -- [info] available since OpenSSH 6.2

# fingerprints
(fin) ssh-ed25519: SHA256:Nj+oAvSGKSgBI/39hNw3iA0DqAmQCvEQPV2jAFGU8UM
(fin) ssh-rsa: SHA256:J7frkgtRbu3CkvdmBcTGKEy3Ierxi16jZKUiDD9wrUk

# additional info
(nfo) Be aware that, while this target properly supports the strict key exchange method (via the kex-strict-?-v00@openssh.com marker) needed to protect against the Terrapin vulnerability (CVE-2023-48795), all peers must also support this feature as well, otherwise the vulnerability will still be present.  The following algorithms would allow an unpatched peer to create vulnerable SSH channels with this target: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com.  If any CBC ciphers are in this list, you may remove them while leaving the *-etm@openssh.com MACs in place; these MACs are fine while paired with non-CBC cipher types.

OpenBSD 7.4 and older #

On OpenBSD 7.4 or older, and installations upgraded to OpenBSD 7.5, there’s an additional set of recommendations that need solving.

# algorithm recommendations (for OpenSSH 9.7)
(rec) !rsa-sha2-256                         -- key algorithm to change (increase modulus size to 3072 bits or larger)
(rec) !rsa-sha2-512                         -- key algorithm to change (increase modulus size to 3072 bits or larger)

To solve these, the moduli file needs to be modified, the host-keys need to be removed and regenerated, and clients need to remove their old keys from their known_hosts file.

Remove Diffie-Hellman moduli smaller than 3071 #

awk '$5 >= 3071' /etc/moduli > ~/moduli.new
doas mv ~/moduli.new /etc/moduli

Remove and regenerate host keys #

doas rm /etc/ssh/sshd_host_*
doas ssh-keygen -A
doas sshd -t

Restart sshd

doas rcctl restart sshd

Clients will now get the following warning when connecting

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@    WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!     @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ED25519 key sent by the remote host is